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Test Code 4104 Parvovirus B19 Antibodies, IgG and IgM, Serum


Advisory Information


This test is intended for patients with at least 7 days of symptoms or asymptomatic individuals with recent exposure to parvovirus B19.

 

For patients with acute, symptomatic presentation, order either  PARVP / Parvovirus B19, Molecular Detection, PCR, Plasma or PARVO / Parvovirus B19, Molecular Detection, PCR, Varies.



Specimen Required


Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL


Profile Information

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
PARVG Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG, S No Yes
PARVM Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgM, S No Yes
PARVN Parvovirus B19 Ab Interpretation No Yes

Method Name

Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)

Specimen Type

Serum

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.5 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
  Frozen  14 days

Clinical Information

Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease (ie, erythema infectiosum, slapped cheek syndrome), which usually produces a mild illness characterized by an intensive erythematous maculopapular facial rash. Most outbreaks of parvovirus infection are acquired by direct contact with respiratory secretions and primarily occur in the spring. Close contact between individuals is responsible for infection in schools, day care centers, and hospitals. The virus has also been associated with fetal damage (hydrops fetalis), aplastic crisis, and arthralgia. Infection during pregnancy presents the risk of transmission to the fetus that may cause intrauterine death. The rate of fetal death following maternal infection ranges between 1% and 9%.

 

Parvovirus B19 preferentially replicates in erythroid progenitor cells.(1) Infection with parvovirus B19 occurs early in life, and the virus is transmitted by respiratory secretion and occasionally by blood products. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies increases with age. The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to parvovirus is 2% to 9% of children under 5 years, 15% to 35% in children 5 to 18 years of age, and 30% to 60% in adults (19 years or older).

 

Most acute infections with parvovirus B19 are diagnosed in the laboratory by serologically detecting IgG and IgM class antibodies to the virus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing.

Reference Values

IgG: Negative

IgM: Negative

Interpretation

Parvovirus B19 IgM

Parvovirus B19 IgG

Interpretation

Negative

Negative

No antibody to Parvovirus B19 detected. Acute infection cannot be ruled out as antibody levels may be below the limit of detection. If clinically indicated, a second serum should be submitted in 14 to 21 days.

Negative

Positive

Results suggest past infection.

Equivocal

Positive or negative

Recommend follow-up testing in 10 to 14 days if clinically indicated.

Positive

Positive, negative or equivocal

Results suggest recent infection and should be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation.

 

The presence of IgM class antibodies suggests recent infection. The presence of IgG antibodies only is indicative of past exposure.

 

Both IgG and IgM may be present at or soon after onset of illness and reach peak titers within 30 days. Because IgG antibody may persist for years, diagnosis of acute infection is made by the detection of IgM antibodies.

Clinical Reference

1. Brown KE, Young NS: Parvovirus B19 in human disease. Ann Rev Med 1997;48:59-67

2. Markenson GR, Yancey MK: Parvovirus B19 infections in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 1998;22(4):309-317

3. Summers J, Jones SE, Anderson MJ: Characterization of the genome of the agent of erythrocyte aplasia permits its classification as a human parvovirus. J Gen Virol 1983;64;(Pt 11):2527-2532

4. Qui J, Soderlund-Venermo M, Young NS. Human Paravoviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Jan;30(1):43-113. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00040-16

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Friday; 11 a.m.

Performing Laboratory

Mayo Clinic Laboratories in Rochester

Test Classification

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

86747 x 2

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PARVS Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG and IgM, S 34950-6

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
PARVG Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG, S 29660-8
PARVM Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgM, S 40658-7
PARVN Parvovirus B19 Ab Interpretation 58737-8

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Microbiology Test Request (T244) with the specimen.