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Test Code 1147 JC Virus, Molecular Detection, PCR, Spinal Fluid

Performing Laboratory

Mayo Clinic Laboratories in Rochester

Specimen Type

CSF


Specimen Required


Supplies: Aliquot Tube, 5 mL (T465)

Preferred: 12 x 75-mm screw cap vial (T465)

Acceptable: Sterile screw cap vial

Container/Tube: Sterile vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions: Do not centrifuge.


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.3 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
CSF Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
  Frozen  7 days

Reference Values

Negative

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Friday

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

87798

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
LCJC JC Virus PCR, CSF In Process

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
88909 JC Virus PCR, CSF 33295-7

Clinical Information

JC virus (JCV), a member of the genus Polyomavirus, is a small nonenveloped DNA-containing virus. Primary infection occurs in early childhood, with a prevalence of greater than 80%.(1) The virus is latent but can reactivate in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with AIDS.

 

JCV is recognized as the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system.(2,3) Histologic examination of brain biopsy tissue may reveal characteristic pathologic changes localized mainly in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Detection of JCV DNA by PCR (target gene, large T antigen) in the cerebrospinal fluid specimens of patients with suspected PML infection has replaced the need for biopsy tissue for laboratory diagnosis.(4) Importantly, the PCR test is specific with no cross-reaction with BK virus, a closely related polyomavirus.

Interpretation

Detection of JC virus (JCV) DNA supports the clinical diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy due to JCV.

Clinical Reference

1. Safak M, Khalili K: An overview: human polyomavirus JC virus and its associated disorders. J Neurovirol 2006;9 Suppl 1:3-9

2. Khalili K, White MK: Human demyelinating disease and the polyomavirus JCV. Mult Scler 2006 Apr;12(2):133-142

3. Ahsan N, Shah KV: Polyomaviruses and human diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol 2006;577:1-18

4. Romero JR, Kimberlin DW: Molecular diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system. Clin Lab Med 2003 Dec;23(4):843-865

5. Chen Y, Bord E, Tompkins T, et al: Asymptomatic reactivation of JC virus in patients treated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med 2009 Sep 10;361(11):1067-1074

6. Egli A, Infanti L, Dumoulin A, et al: Prevalence of polyomavirus BK and JC infection and replication in 400 healthy donors. J Infect Dis 2009 Mar 15;199(6):837-846

Method Name

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)/DNA Probe Hybridization

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Microbiology Test Request Form (T244) with the specimen (http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/it-mmfiles/microbiology_test_request_form.pdf)

Testing Algorithm

See Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel Algorithm in Special Instructions.